INNOVATIVE PROJECT GUIDE

.

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size
Scope Management

Contents of Requirements Traceability Matrix

E-mail Print PDF

Contents of Requirements Traceability Matrix are :

  • Unique identifier

  • Description

  • Reasons for inclusion

  • Owner

  • Source

  • Priority

  • Version

  • Status (active, cancelled, deferred, approved, assigned, completed)

  • Status date

  • Stability, acceptance criteria
 

What is Configuration Management System?

E-mail Print PDF

It is a system used to record characteristics of a product, service or result. Every change or addition in the characteristic of the product, service or result is updated in the CMS (Configuration Management System).

CMS is also used to report on service, result or product. Using CMS, we can see any relationships between different services, products, results, and also internal or external dependencies for the development or running of the product, service or result, if exists.

The detail of a service, result or product in the CMS may also be linked with business operations, departments, clients, etc.

 

Understand Project Scope Management Processes as Described in PMBOK

E-mail Print PDF

This article will explain the project scope management, as illustrated in PMBOK 5th edition, and will be useful for those inspiring to obtain PMP certification, or enhance their project management skills.

Introduction

Project scope management ensures all the desired work is properly included, defined, monitored, and controlled. No extra work is carried out, which is called gold plating or scope creep, since it entails utilization of project resources without adjustment of cost and schedule. Product scope is the features and functions of product, service, or result to be created by the project, while project scope is the work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with specified features and functions. Project scope may also include product scope. Scope baseline comprises the project scope statement, work breakdown (WBS), and the WBS Dictionary. Scope baseline can only be changed by the Perform Integrated Change Control Process, which includes a Change Control Board. Scope baseline is used as basis for comparison during the process of Validate Scope and Control Scope.

The processes in scope management are described in the under mentioned paras.

Plan Scope Management

In this process the scope management plan is created, which describes how the project scope will be defined, validated, controlled, and provides guidance throughout the project life cycle.

Collect Requirements

Stakeholder needs are defined, documented, and managed, which are the basis for defining and managing the project and product scope. Project success is intimately related to the precise definition of needs, and their decomposition into requirements and expectations of sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders. Requirements are analysed and recorded in the project scope baseline. Requirements are measured as project execution starts, and are foundation of work breakdown structure (WBS). All management plans, including cost, schedule, quality, and procurement plans are based on requirements of stakeholders. Requirements are developed by the analysis of project charter, stakeholder register, and stakeholder management plan.

Requirements are collected from pre-qualified stakeholders, and all differences are reconciled, which leads to consensus. All issues are resolved expeditiously. Group creativity techniques used for collecting requirements are:

Brainstorming - generate and collect multiple ideas.

Nominal group - brainstorming with voting.

Delphi - experts give opinion, and response is anonymous.

Idea/mind mapping - ideas mapped after brainstorming.

Affinity- ideas are sorted into groups for analysis.

Multicriteria decision analysis - decision matrix is used for decision making.

Define Scope

Project and product are defined in detail, by classifying the project boundaries. Final requirements are selected for the project scope, and project scope statement is developed. In iterative life cycle approach, initially high level vision is developed, and later detailed scope is determined, as work progresses. During definition of project scope, all risks, assumptions, and constraints are analysed.

Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Deliverables and work are subdivided into small components to facilitate their management. Each descending level is more detailed. Work breakdown structure (WBS) defines the complete project scope, with work specified in the project scope statement. Work in lowest level of work breakdown structure (WBS) is called work packages, which can be easily scheduled, monitored, and controlled.

Validate Scope

Acceptance of deliverables are formalized from the customer. Validated deliverables received from Quality Control (QC) are reviewed with customer or sponsor, and acceptance is obtained. Basis for validation and acceptance are the Requirements Documentation, prepared during the process Collect Requirements. Scope baseline is used as reference for validation of scope. Validation of scope involves acceptance of deliverable by customer, and Quality Control (QC) is for their correctness. Normally Quality Control (QC) is conducted before the process of Validate Scope, but may be conducted in parallel.

Control Scope

Project and product scope are monitored, with reference to project scope baseline. Corrective and preventive actions are recommended to prevent scope creep, which is uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope, without adjustment of time, cost, and resources.

 

Collect Requirement Process Explained (PMBOK Scope Management)

E-mail Print PDF

Introduction

Collect requirements is an important process in project scope management, and also a vital component of the PMP exam, as the project success is greatly influenced by this process. It is performed to define the project scope, by elaborating the needs of stakeholders, provides basis for defining & managing project scope and product scope. Project success is closely related to the precise definition of needs, and their decomposition into requirements.

Project Scope Baseline

Requirements of sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders are documented, such as the conditions or capabilities to be met by the project deliverables. Requirements are analyzed, recorded in the project scope baseline, and measured as execution starts, to ensure their correctness and completeness according to the stakeholder’s expectations. Project scope baseline has a vital role in the project scope management.

Project Planning

During project scope management, when project scope is defined, WBS (work breakdown structure) is created based on the requirements desired by the stakeholders. All the project management plans, such as cost, schedule, quality, and procurement plans are developed based on the requirements. Development of requirements begins with analysis of the project charter, stakeholder register, and stakeholder management plan. During project planning, stakeholders and the project team is involved, and differences are reconciled, as communication leads to consensus.

Group Creativity Techniques

Following techniques may be employed during the process of collect requirements in project scope management, to define the project scope:

Brainstorming - generate and collect multiple ideas

Nominal group - it is a type of brainstorming with voting

Delphi - experts give opinion, responses are anonymous

Idea/mind mapping - ideas mapped after brainstorming

Affinity- ideas are sorted into groups for analysis

Multicriteria decision analysis - decision matrix is created for decision making

Conclusion

Time utilized during the process of collect requirements may seem being wasted, but it saves many issues which may occur if the project requirements are not collected precisely. Stakeholders involvement may prevent disputes during the process validate scope, when the customer is reviewing the project, before it is closed. Close coordination is required with the stakeholders to understand their exact need, rather than the stated need.

Also read:
 

Project Scope Management Explained as per PMBOK

E-mail Print PDF

Below is the summary of Project Scope Management, which is one of the major chapters in PMBOK 5th edition, and a vital component of the PMP exam.

Ensures all work is included, defined, and controlled.

No extra work should be carried out in the project, as it involves project resources, may increase project cost, and extend the project schedule. This extra work is called gold plating or project creep, which should be avoided.

Product scope is the features and functions of product, service, or result required by the customer.

Project scope is the work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with specified features & functions. Project scope may also include product scope

Scope baseline includes Project Scope Statement, WBS, and WBS Dictionary, which contains details of the WBS components (like technical references, etc).

Scope baseline can only be changed only by Integrated Change Control, and used for comparison during Validate Scope & Control Scope. Integrated Change Control process incorporates a Change Control Board established to analyze and accept/reject proposed changes. Change Control Board may or may not include the representative of the customer, and if not included, then approval of the customer may be required, after approval by the Change Control Board.

Completion of project scope is measured against the project management plan.

Completion product scope is measured against the project requirements intimated by the customer in Project Charter and the process of Collect Requirements.

PMBOK Guide Processes in Project Scope Management

1. Plan Scope Management - policies determined to manage the project scope, including creation of the Scope Management Plan and the Requirements Management Plan.

2. Collect Requirements - close interaction with customers, users, stakeholders, and sponsor to determine their precise need, as the project management plan will be created accordingly. Requirements are collected by different techniques, including interviews, surveys, conduct of workshop, questionnaires, development of

Scope Management

prototypes. This process of Collect Requirements has great significance in the project success, as it will determine the project needs in detail. Information in project charter is only high level, and not adequate for proper creation of the project deliverables. Requirements collected are mentioned in the Stakeholders Requirements Document, which are used during project execution as reference.

3. Define Scope - after the project requirements are collected, project scope is defined by creating the Project Scope Statement, which includes the project deliverables, product scope description, exclusions to manage stakeholder’s expectations, acceptance criteria, and assumptions.

4. Create WBS - project work is sub-divided into smaller components, so that it can be managed effectively, which is called WBS (work breakdown structure). Each descending level in the WBS is more detailed, and the lowest level is called work package. This WBS is the Scope Baseline used by the project manager to control scope, and referred by the customer to validate project scope, which may be performed at the end of each project phase, or in parallel as the work is being performed.

5. Control Scope - project manager controls the project scope by performing the work according to the WBS, not performing any extra work (gold plating or scope creep).

6. Validate Scope - customer validates the project scope by referring the requirements mentioned in the project charter, and also provided during the process Collect Requirements.

Also see:

Sample Scope Management Plan

Difference Between Scope Creep and Gold Plating

 

 
  • «
  •  Start 
  •  Prev 
  •  1 
  •  2 
  •  Next 
  •  End 
  • »


Page 1 of 2