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Types of Buffers in Project Schedule Management

Project Buffer vs Feeding Buffer vs Resource Buffer

Find out the difference between Project Buffer, Feeding Buffer and Resource Buffer

Project Buffer

It is a reserve inserted at end of the project. Any delay in the Longest Path will consume some or all of the buffer, and the completion date will not change.

Feeding Buffers

It is a buffer that is inserted before the first activity on the Critical Chain. This is to ensure that any tasks feeding into the Critical Chain may not delay the Critical Chain. When a delay does occur in the feeding activities, the feeding buffer is consumed so that Critical Chain is not affected.

Resource Buffers

These are dummy activities with critical resource assignment, added at one or more places on the Critical Chain with so as to ensure that the resource is available and committed to be utilized if needed.


Organizational Structure 5 Types

Organizational Structure Is Of 5 Types

The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) recognizes five types of organizational structures. They are:

  1. Functional Structure: This structure is best suited for organizations that have stable and repetitive processes. In a functional structure, employees are grouped by their area of expertise, such as marketing, finance, or engineering. This structure provides clear lines of authority and decision-making, making it easier to manage day-to-day operations. The benefits of a functional structure include specialized knowledge, clear responsibilities, and effective resource utilization.

  2. Projectized Structure: This structure is ideal for organizations that have a high volume of projects. In a projectized structure, the project manager has full authority over the project and the project team, and the focus is on delivering the project within budget, scope, and time constraints. The benefits of a projectized structure include clear lines of authority, effective communication, and improved project delivery.

  3. Matrix Structure: This structure combines the benefits of functional and projectized structures, making it suitable for organizations with both ongoing operations and a high volume of projects. In a matrix structure, project managers and functional managers both share responsibility for the project, leading to a balance of specialized knowledge and project delivery focus. The benefits of a matrix structure include flexibility, improved resource utilization, and effective project management.

  4. Weak Matrix Structure: This structure is similar to a matrix structure, but functional managers have more control over projects. This structure is best suited for organizations that have a low volume of projects and a focus on ongoing operations. The benefits of a weak matrix structure include efficient resource utilization and the ability to leverage specialized knowledge.

  5. Balanced Matrix Structure: This structure is similar to a matrix structure, but project managers and functional managers have equal control over projects. This structure is ideal for organizations that have a moderate volume of projects and a focus on both ongoing operations and project delivery. The benefits of a balanced matrix structure include improved communication, clear lines of authority, and effective project management.

These were organizational structure types. Organization adopt the structure type that suits their projects, the project needs, project environment and even the internal and external environmental factors. 

What is CCB (Change Control Board) and ICC (Integrated Change Control)

The management of change is a critical component of organizational operations. It provides a structured and controlled approach to making alterations, which minimizes disruptions, reduces the likelihood of failure, and maximizes the chances of success when introducing new or modified systems, processes, services, or products.

What is CCB (Change Control Board)?

The Change Control Board (CCB) is a group of individuals responsible for examining, evaluating, and granting approval for changes in a project. Typically, the CCB is comprised of representatives from various stakeholders or departments involved in the project, and its main goal is to assess the impact of changes on the project and guarantee that they are planned and executed appropriately to minimize disruptions and keep the project on track.

What is Integrated Change Control (ICC)

Integrated Change Control (ICC) is an effective method for managing changes in a project. ICC is performed by CCB and it involves a systematic evaluation and implementation of changes in a coordinated manner to align the project with its objectives. The ICC process encompasses the following steps:

  1. Identification of Changes: Capturing changes as they occur and evaluating their impact on the project.

  2. Evaluation of Changes: Assessing the impact of changes on the project and determining whether they should be carried out.

  3. Planning of Changes: Developing a plan for executing changes, including the required resources, timeline, and risks.

  4. Implementation of Changes: Carrying out changes according to the plan, ensuring proper execution.

  5. Monitoring and Control of Changes: Overseeing changes and ensuring they are carried out as planned.

The objective of Integrated Change Control is to guarantee that changes are thoroughly planned, executed, and monitored to minimize their impact on the project and keep it on track. This is a crucial aspect of project management as changes are a regular occurrence in any project and can have a significant impact if not properly managed.

PMP Certification Benefits

What is PMP certification?

Project Management Professional certification is a globally recognized professional certification that demonstrates a project manager's ability to manage projects effectively and efficiently. It is offered by PMI, a non-profit organization that promotes the advancement of project management professionals. It is the most sought after certification in the field of project management. It is also the most popular certification offered by Project Management Institute (PMI). PMI conducts the PMP certification exam, which tests the project manager's knowledge, skills, and experience in project management. The PMP certification exam covers five process groups: initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. In this article, we will explain the PMP certification in detail. We will elaborate its advantages, disadvantages, eligibility criteria, certification cost, and more.

PMP Certification Benefits

PMP certification benefits are so many and they are for project managers, team leads, senior professionals and the benefits include the following:

Enhances employability: Project Management Professional certification demonstrates a project manager's ability to manage projects effectively and efficiently, which enhances their employability. Employers prefer to hire PMP certified project managers, as they are confident about their skills and knowledge in project management.

Increases earning potential: PMP certified project managers earn more than non-certified project managers. According to PMI's salary survey, PMP certified project managers earn 25% more than non-certified project managers.

Global recognition: PMP certification is recognized globally, which means that PMP certified project managers can work in any country. This enhances their career opportunities and enables them to work on international projects.

Demonstrates professionalism: PMP certification demonstrates a project manager's professionalism, as it requires them to adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct.

Enhances knowledge and skills: PMP certification requires project managers to have a thorough understanding of project management concepts and principles. This enhances their knowledge and skills in project management, which in turn enables them to manage projects effectively and easily. 

These were some of the main PMP certification benefits but of course there are more PMP certification benefits, which an individual can get by becoming PMP certified. 

Disadvantages of Project Management Professional certification

PMP certification also has some disadvantages, which include the following:

Cost: PMP certification is expensive, which may deter some project managers from pursuing it. The certification cost includes the exam fee, study materials, and preparation courses.

Time-consuming: PMP certification requires project managers to have a minimum of 35 hours of project management education, which can be time-consuming.

Renewal requirements: PMP certification requires project managers to renew their certification every three years by earning professional development units (PDUs). This can be challenging for project managers who have busy schedules.

Eligibility criteria for Project Management Professional certification

To be eligible for Project Management Professional certification, project managers must meet the following requirements:

Education: Project managers must have a four-year degree or a secondary degree (high school diploma, associate's degree, or equivalent).

Project management experience: Project managers must have a minimum of three years of project management experience, which includes 4,500 hours of leading and directing projects.

Project management education: Project managers must have a minimum of 35 hours of project management education.

Certification cost

The cost of Project Management Professional certification varies depending on the applicant's membership status with PMI. The following are the certification fees for PMP certification:

PMI member: $405
Non-PMI member: $555
The cost of study materials and preparation courses is not included in the certification fee.

Exam format

The PMP certification exam is a computer-based exam that consists of 200 multiple-choice questions. The exam is four hours long and is divided into two sections. The first section consists of 175 questions, and the second section consists.

so as you have read here both the PMP certification benefits as well as disadvantages, the benefits are much more than the disadvantages. More and more employers worldwide are looking for PMP certified individuals and so being having PMP credential is surely something that can take you up the career ladder. 

Agile Project Management - What is It and Its Benefits

Project management is an essential process that involves planning, organizing, and executing tasks within a specific timeframe and budget. The success of any project depends on effective project management, which involves various methodologies, techniques, and tools. In this article, we will discuss the most popular project management topic - Agile project management.

Agile project management is a methodology that focuses on delivering value to the customer in small increments, also known as sprints, and allows for flexibility and adaptability in the development process. The Agile approach is commonly used in software development projects, but can be applied to various other industries and sectors.

One of the core principles of Agile project management is the use of cross-functional teams, which consist of members with different skills and expertise. This approach encourages collaboration, communication, and knowledge sharing among team members, which can lead to better problem-solving and decision-making.

Another essential aspect of Agile project management is the use of user stories, which are short descriptions of features or functionalities that the customer requires. User stories help the team to focus on the customer's needs and prioritize the features that provide the most value.

Agile project management also emphasizes continuous improvement, which means that the team is constantly evaluating and improving their processes, tools, and techniques. This approach allows the team to adapt to changes in the project requirements, customer feedback, and market trends.

There are several Agile frameworks and methodologies, including Scrum, Kanban, Lean, and XP (Extreme Programming). Scrum is the most popular Agile framework and is widely used in software development projects. Scrum is based on the iterative and incremental development process and involves three key roles - Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Development Team.

The Product Owner is responsible for prioritizing the product backlog, which is a list of features or functionalities that need to be developed. The Scrum Master is responsible for facilitating the Scrum process and removing any obstacles that the team may encounter. The Development Team is responsible for developing the product and delivering the features in each sprint.

Scrum also includes several events, such as Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective. These events provide opportunities for the team to plan, inspect, and adapt their processes and deliverables.

Another popular Agile methodology is Kanban, which is a visual management tool that helps the team to visualize their work and limit work in progress. Kanban involves a board with columns that represent different stages of the development process, such as "To Do," "In Progress," and "Done." The team can use cards or sticky notes to represent the tasks or user stories and move them across the board as they progress.

Lean is another Agile methodology that focuses on minimizing waste and maximizing value. Lean involves identifying and eliminating non-value-adding activities and processes, such as overproduction, waiting, and defects. This approach helps the team to optimize their processes and deliver value to the customer more efficiently.

Extreme Programming (XP) is an Agile methodology that emphasizes coding practices, such as continuous integration, pair programming, and test-driven development. XP involves a high level of collaboration and communication among team members and encourages frequent releases to the customer.

In conclusion, Agile project management is a popular methodology that emphasizes flexibility, adaptability, and customer value. The use of cross-functional teams, user stories, continuous improvement, and various Agile frameworks and methodologies can help the team to deliver high-quality products within a specific timeframe and budget. By adopting Agile project management, organizations can increase their productivity, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage in the marketplace.


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