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Construction delays or slippage in construction refers to delays or disruptions to the project schedule. To manage construction delay, you can use several strategies such as:
Develop a detailed project schedule that clearly outlines all tasks, dependencies, and milestones.
Regularly monitor and update the schedule, identifying potential delays early and taking corrective action.
Communicate effectively with all stakeholders, including the project team, the client, and any subcontractors, to ensure everyone is aware of the schedule and any potential delays.
Use project management software to track progress, identify potential issues, and generate reports.
Implement a risk management plan to identify potential risks and develop mitigation strategies.
Adopt a proactive approach to problem-solving, rather than waiting for issues to arise.
Regularly review and update your schedules and plans as new information becomes available.
Review and analysis of the project performance regularly and adjust the schedule accordingly.
Keep a close watch on the resources, budget, and time spent on the project, and take corrective action if necessary.
Be prepared to make changes in the project if required to minimize the slippage
These are 10 ways to manage construction delay. There may be more ways and the project manager would choose the best approach to deal with the delay, considering the nature of the project and stakeholder expectations
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The Fishbone diagrams, which are also called as the Ishikawa diagrams, or Cause and Effect
diagrams, are a valuable tool for the identification of all the potential reasons of a specific trouble. The likely causes are categorized in a methodical and graphical structure. The map symbolizes the fish bone composition. A box located at the head includes the problem statement. The backbone has various branches to indicate the grouping of problems. Every branch has boxes for listing particular problems. Every box can diverge externally, and the features are increased. There is no firm structure regarding the nature and number of branches. Some fishbone diagrams concerning manufacturing business employ 5 branches signifying Man, Machine, Materials, Methods, and Measurement, while some utilize 8 branches for Procedures, People, Price, Promotion, Processes, Plant, Product, and Policies.
5 Whys of Root Cause Analysis
This is a technique which discovers cause and effect relations to probe the problem root cause. The process involves inquiring the potential cause of the fundamental indicators, and obtaining additional information, to investigate at depth. The figure 5 is random, based on the postulation that asking why 5 times generally offers the final root cause. The technique does not limit the questions to 5 whys. Presume a difficulty as consumers waiting at store, for extensive duration. The obvious cause is inadequate number of counters to manage the customers during peak hours, or badly taught clerical staff. A 5 why analysis may recognize somewhat unusual as the root cause. This process necessitates determining as to why the clients have to stop for long durations at the counters. The reply may be that a large number of clients do shopping at the store. This reply directs another question, as to why the clients do shopping during the peak hours. The response may be reasonable cost, and products of a high quality. The questions are repeated till the ultimate root cause of the problem is established.
The dissimilarity between fishbone diagrams and 5 whys root cause analysis is basically the approach. Normally, the fishbone diagrams assist as a helpful process for the application of 5 whys. Every branch is used to collect all the whys, in a simple format. This permits the decision makers to concentrate on the whys, and recognize the root cause.
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Project Scope Management
This article will explain the project scope management, as described in PMBOK . It will be useful for those inspiring to obtain PMP certification, or enhance their project management skills.
Project scope management ensures all the desired work is properly included, defined, monitored, and controlled. No extra work is carried out, which is called gold plating or scope creep, since it entails utilization of project resources without adjustment of cost and schedule. Product scope is the features and functions of product, service, or result to be created by the project, while project scope is the work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with specified features and functions. Project scope may also include product scope. Scope baseline comprises the project scope statement, work breakdown (WBS), and the WBS Dictionary. Scope baseline can only be changed by the Perform Integrated Change Control Process, which includes a Change Control Board. Scope baseline is used as basis for comparison during the process of Validate Scope and Control Scope.
The processes in scope management are described below
Plan Scope Management
This is the first process in project scope management. In this process the scope management plan is created, which describes how the scope of the project will be defined, validated, controlled, and it provides guidance throughout the project life cycle.
Stakeholder needs are defined, documented, and managed, which are the basis for defining and managing the project and product scope. Project success is intimately related to the precise definition of needs, and their decomposition into requirements and expectations of sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders. Requirements are analysed and recorded in the project scope baseline. Requirements are measured as project execution starts, and are foundation of work breakdown structure (WBS). All management plans, including cost, schedule, quality, and procurement plans are based on requirements of stakeholders. Requirements are developed by the analysis of project charter, stakeholder register, and stakeholder management plan.
Requirements are collected from pre-qualified stakeholders, and all differences are reconciled, which leads to consensus. All issues are resolved expeditiously. Group creativity techniques used for collecting requirements are:
• Brainstorming - generate and collect multiple ideas.
• Nominal group - brainstorming with voting.
• Delphi - experts give opinion, and response is anonymous.
• Idea/mind mapping - ideas mapped after brainstorming.
• Affinity- ideas are sorted into groups for analysis.
• Multicriteria decision analysis - decision matrix is used for decision making.
Project and product are defined in detail, by classifying the project boundaries. Final requirements are selected for the project scope, and project scope statement is developed. In iterative life cycle approach, initially high level vision is developed, and later detailed scope is determined, as work progresses. During definition of project scope, all risks, assumptions, and constraints are analyzed.
Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Deliverables and work are subdivided into small components to facilitate their management. Each descending level is more detailed. Work breakdown structure (WBS) defines the complete project scope, with work specified in the project scope statement. Work in lowest level of work breakdown structure (WBS) is called work packages, which can be easily scheduled, monitored, and controlled.
Acceptance of deliverables are formalized from the customer. Validated deliverables received from Quality Control (QC) are reviewed with customer or sponsor, and acceptance is obtained. Basis for validation and acceptance are the Requirements Documentation, prepared during the process Collect Requirements. Scope baseline is used as reference for validation of scope. Validation of scope involves acceptance of deliverable by customer, and Quality Control (QC) is for their correctness. Normally Quality Control (QC) is conducted before the process of Validate Scope, but may be conducted in parallel.
Project and product scope are monitored, with reference to project scope baseline. Corrective and preventive actions are recommended to prevent scope creep, which is uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope, without adjustment of time, cost, and resources.
This was about project scope management. Hope you understood it well.
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Quality Management Tools
There are seven fundamental quality management tools used in project quality management, understanding of which is vital for the PMP Certification Exam. A description of these quality tools is mentioned below:
Cause and effect diagram
Also called “fishbone” diagram (since it appears like a fish) or “Ishikawa” diagram (person who founded it). It is one of the most popular quality tools. It is used to determine the root cause of a defect, error, or problem. The issue report is the effect and the likely influencing reasons are the causes. For example, an integration test of a system could fail due to:
• Incorrect coding
• Unsuitable environment
• Inexperienced coder
• Inadequate bandwidth
• Improper test script
Each cause can be evaluated further for a more detailed cause-and-effect diagram.
Flowcharts: It can assist to establish the association between the process stages. This information can be used for process improvement, and to identify the source where errors or problems may occur. Flowcharts are also useful for documentation of processes.
Can be employed for ensuring that certain necessary actions are taken constantly. Check sheets can also assist for organizing data of a quality issue. For example, frequency of a particular cause is the basis of a defect, and this information is used to create a histogram or Pareto chart for prioritization of quality problems.
These are vertical bar charts for creation of a graphic demonstration of outcomes (types of defects or causes of defects) in a descendent arrangement. The aim is problems ranking based on the occurrence frequency, to establish the resolution sequence of the problems.
Histogram is also one of the popular quality management tools. It is a vertical bar chart, as in the Pareto diagram. However, the vertical bars are not plotted by frequency. The vertical bars display the distribution of an occurrence. For example, the shape of calls distribution received by a center. It indicates the range of results called dispersion, and also the mean or median.
Used to establish if a process is predictable and steady. The process planned value is represented by the center line . Normally, in manufacturing processes, +/–3 standard deviations are used, which are the upper and lower control limits for the manufacturing team. The upper and lower specification limits are those limits which are indicated in the agreement or contract by the sponsor. If a measurement is near to the control limit, the project manager should take corrective action so that it is near the center line. PMBOK defines as under:
• Control chart. A graphic display of process data plotted over time and against established control limits. It has a center line that facilitates detection of a trend of plotted values, compared with upper and lower control limits.
• Control limits. The area comprised of three standard deviations on either side of the mean or center line, of a normal distribution that indicates the desired data variation.
Specification limits. The area on either side of the mean, of data on a control chart that meets the requirements of the customer for a service or product.
Although control charts were originally used for monitoring of repetitive and manufacturing processes, they can also be effectively used for tracking of defects, schedule and cost variance, or any other project activity. These control charts are extremely useful in Earned Value Management, which is a project tool to identify cost and schedule variances.
It is a matrix that displays the plotting of two variables, to establish existence of any relationship. For example, weekly working hours and the errors noticed during this period. A correlation may exist to indicate increase in defects with increase in the working hours. Consequently, after analysis, corrective or preventive actions may be taken.
These quality tools help improve business processes as well as the product, which in turn help you satisfy the customers by delivering products that meets his expectations.
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What is Brainstorming meaning? Well, Brainstorming focuses on a relaxed and natural style to problem solving by the use of lateral thinking. Brainstorming techniques inspires individuals to generate ideas, which may even initially appear abnormal, but later may be shaped into innovative solutions. Brainstorming tools can assist people to apply their minds during the brainstorming session. During the brainstorm sessions, disapproval or approving opinions should not be encouraged. Attempt to open up options and break down inaccurate suppositions about the problem. At this stage, conclusion and evaluation prevents generation of ideas and reduces innovation. Assessment of concepts should occur at end of brainstorm session, when solution evaluation occurs.
Benefits of Brainstorming
Traditional group problem solving techniques may often not be appropriate due to unsupportive conduct of group. Though it is essential to initiate an organized, methodical process for problem solving, this may create partial and unimaginative thoughts. However, brainstorming offers an environment that stimulate everybody to contribute. Abnormal ideas are accepted for further discussion and elaboration, without any criticism and the brainstorm members are inspired to participate for fostering productive solutions.
Brainstorm can also assist team buy-in for the selected solution, as they will be more dedicated to an approach if they were engaged in its development. Furthermore, since brainstorming involves excitement, it aids bonding of the team members, as they positively resolve challenges, in an entertaining background.
Though brainstorming may be valuable, it is essential to conduct it with a non-judgment attitude, otherwise unhealthy criticism may affect the team relationships. There are different brainstorming techniques available for generation of creative ideas through brainstorming activities.
Whereas group brainstorm sessions are often more helpful to generate solutions compared to routine group problem solving, numerous surveys have disclosed that brainstorming by individuals creates better ideas than in a group brainstorm session. This may occur since groups do not always strictly follow brainstorming rules, and unhealthy activities affect achievement of brainstorming goals. While you brainstorm yourself, there is no fear regarding the opinions of other people, and thus the environment is more creative. You may appreciate a solution for which you may have hesitation to discuss with other people, for which self-brainstorming is more valuable. However, development of ideas by self-brainstorming may not totally possible due to lack of experience, knowledge, and experience for which group brainstorming may be more useful.
Brainstorming by Group
Collaborative brainstorming has the benefit of the complete knowledge, experience, and creativity of all participants. Brainstorming exercises in group involve more concentration compared to brainstorming by individuals. Another advantage is the sense of participation of group members in the development of solution. Brainstorming by group is more entertaining, involving team building and fun. Use of brainstorming software may be helpful.
I hope now you know complete brainstorming meaning and its benefits.
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