Scope Management involves the management of techniques that make sure that the project comprises all the tasks necessary to achieve the objectives, and exclusive of all the effort which is not essential. It includes the definition, development, and verification of work, including the assignment of responsibilities for these tasks.
Processes included in Scope Management are:
The Scope Management Plan presents structure for the project scope. This plan includes the approach for management of scope, roles and responsibilities for this discipline, definition of scope, verification and control actions, and creation of work breakdown structure. All communication regarding the project scope will remain within this Scope Management Plan.
The objectives of this project are design, program, and analysis of a new software, which will be applied to track the finances of the company, and enhance the financial procedures. This consists of software design, programming, coding, and validation. Outsourcing is not expected.
Scope Management Approach
It is essential that the project scope is managed efficiently by precise scope definition, with a detailed documentation. This part of the Scope Management Plan includes a synopsis, which focuses on the following:
Project Manager will be entirely responsible for the project scope management. The project scope will defined by the Project Scope Statement, Work Breakdown Structure, and WBS Dictionary. Sponsor, Project Manager, and stakeholders will formulate the documents for measuring project scope, including quality checklists, and measurements to identify the work performance. Changes in scope may be recommended by Project Manager, project stakeholders, or members project team. Change requests will be forwarded to the Project Manager, who will analyze change in scope, and its impacts on cost, schedule, quality, and other aspects. Project Manager will forward the change request to the Change Control Board for decision. After approval by the Change Control Board, the project documents will be updated by the Project Sponsor, and changes in scope will be communicated to the stakeholders.
Roles and Responsibilities
To ensure efficient management of project scope, it is crucial that roles and responsibilities for the management of scope are defined explicitly in the Scope Management Plan. This portion identifies the role of Project Manager, Project Management Team, and Stakeholders, who are responsible for the project scope management. It should mention who is accountable for scope management, and responsibility for the acceptance of project deliverables.
Project Manager, Sponsor and project management team will have key roles for the management of project scope. Therefore, all these persons should be conscious of their responsibilities to ensure that all project work is in accordance with the scope defined. The table below describes the roles and responsibilities for project scope management:
Table 2.1, Roles and Responsibilities Regarding Scope Management
This part involves the development of comprehensive project goals, and the project deliverables. Scope can only be defined after the project requirements have been precisely appreciated during the previous process of Collect Requirements. During this process, documents which are created are Requirements Documentation, Requirements Management Plan, and Requirements Traceability Matrix. The Scope Management Plan will describe the procedure to be implemented to create the comprehensive project description and the deliverables. The documents to be used for this purpose are the Project Charter, Requirements Documentation, and other project documents. Tools and techniques to be for defining the project scope are product analysis, identification of alternatives, and conduct of workshops.
The project scope was defined by means of a methodical process of collection of project and product requirements from the stakeholders. Initially, an analysis was conducted regarding the existing software applications of the company, based on client and team feedback. Subsequently, the project requirements were documented, and the requirements management plan, and requirements traceability matrix were developed to trace the requirements to the original.
Project description was completed and the deliverables were identified, based on the user requirements and contribution by the subject matter experts in the disciplines of software design, programming, and testing. Expert judgment was extremely useful in providing valuable information, to accomplish the user requirements of delivering software, which will enhance financial tracking and performance of other financial processes.
Project Scope Statement
The project scope statement explains the project deliverables, and the necessary work involved for their creation. The Project Scope Statement includes the following elements:
The project scope statement includes a project description, acceptance criteria, list of deliverables, exclusions, constraints, and assumptions. It also includes work that is not to be executed, and not within the project scope.
This project comprises designing, programming, and testing of a software application that will be used for tracking the company finances. The project deliverables are complete software for financial tracking, with flexibility for modification and expansion, as required. The project acceptance will occur after the successful software testing in all sections, and is confirmed to be compatible with the existing information technology of the company. Ongoing operations and software maintenance is not included in this project. Only company staff and resources can be utilized for this project. Furthermore, the project duration will not exceed 120 days, and budget will be maximum $600,000. It is assumed that the project sponsor will provide all necessary support, and the branch supervisors, with internal resources, will be available for the project.
Work Breakdown Structure
Work Breakdown Structure and Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary are significant components for efficient scope management. This part of the Scope Management Plan explains how the scope of the project will be decomposed into smaller components in the WBS, and how these small elements will be monitored and controlled during the project life cycle.
To ensure efficient management of the project work, it will be sub-divided into discrete work packages that should not be in excess of 40 hours work. This will permit effective scope management during the project execution. The first level of project decomposition consists of Design, Programming, and Testing. The first level components are further subdivided into work packages, duration of which will not need 40 hours, and not less than 4 hours (refer WBS below).
Figure 1.1, Work Breakdown Structure
To ensure clear definition of project work, WBS Dictionary is created, which incorporates detail of all WBS elements, including a comprehensive description of work, deliverables, budget, and resources required.
Table 1.2, WBS Dictionary
This section includes the procedure for verification of deliverables, with reference to the scope defined, and the guidelines for project acceptance. The project deliverables should be accepted by the client by scope verification either throughout the project life cycle, or by inspection at the end.
As the project is executed, deliverables will be verified by the Project Manager, keeping in view the scope baseline and the project scope statement that was defined during the project planning. After verification by the Project Manager, review will be carried out with the project sponsor for formal acceptance of the project. The deliverables will be accepted by the sponsor by signing the acceptance certificate. This document will ensure that the sponsor has accepted the project after verification of the project scope, which was agreed during the project planning, and documented in the project scope statement.
Control scope is the process during which project scope is monitored and controlled during project life cycle. This part of the Scope Management Plan also includes procedure for incorporating changes in the scope baseline.
Project Manager and the project management team will be responsible for the scope control. The project management team will use the WBS Dictionary for obtaining details of the work to be completed. The project management team will ensure that only that works are performed, which is defined in the WBS, and no other work is executed since it will be out of scope. If any change is required in the project scope, impact of changes on cost, schedule, and other features will be analyzed by the Project Manager, and then forward the change to the Change Control Board for decision. Change can be recommended by any member of the project management team. All change requests will be forwarded to the Project Manager, using proper Change Request Form, duly filled with all details.